##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

The core belief behind global health is that “disease knows no borders” and thus, in order to eliminate health risks, we should focus on the scope of their problems and not their location. However, some countries, such as those located in the Middle East and North Africa, which are dealing with economic and political instability as well as conflict, have to face greater health challenges than others. These states tend to depend more on international cooperation and global health policies to eliminate the growing health challenges in their region. This paper seeks to examine the general health status, health risks as well as some global and regional health initiatives implemented in the MENA region, aiming to respond to the multitude of health issues affecting these countries.

References

  1. Alami, R. (2017). Health in MENA: Policies for Inclusive Development. In Khosrow-Pour, M. (ed.). Public Health and Welfare: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications (pp. 38-63). IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-1674-3.ch003
     Google Scholar
  2. Altunışık, M. (2021). Pandemic Regionalism or Not? The MENA Region in the Shadow of Covid-19. The International Spectator, 56(2), 38–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/03932729.2021.1903730.
     Google Scholar
  3. Asbu, E. Z., Masri, M. D., & Kaissi, A. (2017). Health status and health systems financing in the MENA region: Roadmap to universal health coverage. Global Health Research and Policy, 2, 25. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41256-017-0044-9.
     Google Scholar
  4. Batakis, D., Sidiropoulos, S., & Vozikis, A. (2020). What is the Role of International Law in Global Health Governance on the Period of Covid-19. HAPSc Policy Briefs Series, 1(2), 153–165. https://doi.org/10.12681/hapscpbs.26493.
     Google Scholar
  5. Brik, A. B. (2022). Conclusion: The Long Shadow of Pandemic in the MENA Region: Legacy and Hope. In Brik, A. B. (ed.). The COVID-19 Pandemic in the Middle East and North Africa (pp. 186-204). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003266259
     Google Scholar
  6. Brodit, K., & Radwan, H. (2018). Global Health Equity. Journal of Best Practices in Health Professions Diversity, 11(2), 150–154. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26894215.
     Google Scholar
  7. Data Science Initiative. (n.d.). Covax Distribution. https://covid.tuncph.org/covid/map.
     Google Scholar
  8. Emmanouil-Kalos, A. (2021). Post-Pandemic Recovery and Sustainable Growth in the EU: A Post-Keynesian Approach. HAPSc Policy Briefs Series, 2(1), 198-206. https://doi.org/10.12681/hapscpbs.27645.
     Google Scholar
  9. Emmanouil-Kalos, A., & Prokakis, E. (2021). Social Protection after the Pandemic: Lessons Learned from the Eurozone Crisis. HAPSc Policy Briefs Series, 2(1), 70-78. https://doi.org/10.12681/hapscpbs.27660.
     Google Scholar
  10. Fawcett, L. (2021). The Middle East and COVID-19: Time for collective action. Global Health, 17, 133. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12992-021-00786-1.
     Google Scholar
  11. Global Health Institute. (n.d.a). Mobile University for Health. American University of Beirut Academy, https://ghi.aub.edu.lb/muh/
     Google Scholar
  12. Global Health Institute. (n.d.b), American University of Beirut, Academy, The Centre for Research and Education in the Ecology of War. https://ghi.aub.edu.lb/creew/.
     Google Scholar
  13. Global Health Institute. (n.d.c), American University of Beirut, Academy. The Non-Governmental Organisations Initiative. https://ghi.aub.edu.lb/ngoi/.
     Google Scholar
  14. Global Health Institute. (n.d.d). The humanitarian leadership diploma. American University of Beirut, Academy. https://ghi.aub.edu.lb/hld/.
     Google Scholar
  15. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (2022a), Rates of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of all causes per 100,000 people for all countries in the MENA region, Visualisation, University of Washington. http://ihmeuw.org/5uij.
     Google Scholar
  16. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (2022b), Percent of total DALYs, comparison between 1990 and 2000, in North Africa and Middle East, all causes, both sexes, University of Washington. http://ihmeuw.org/5uik.
     Google Scholar
  17. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (2022c), Percent of non-communicable diseases of total DALYs in North Africa and Middle East by year, University of Washington. http://ihmeuw.org/5uil.
     Google Scholar
  18. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (2022d), Total, all-cause out-of-pocket spending for healthcare in the Middle East and North Africa, University of Washington. http://ihmeuw.org/5uin.
     Google Scholar
  19. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) (n.d.). Terms Defined. http://www.healthdata.org/terms-defined.
     Google Scholar
  20. ISGlobal (2022). New Project Will Study How to Improve Health of Migrant Populations in North Africa and Middle East Through Data Collection and Better Access to Health Services. Barcelona Institute of Global Health. https://www.isglobal.org/en/-/un-nuevo-proyecto-estudiara-como-mejorar-la-salud-de-la-poblacion-migrante-en-el-norte-de-africa-y-oriente-medio.
     Google Scholar
  21. Karamouzian, M., & Madani, N. (2020). COVID-19 response in the Middle East and north Africa: challenges and paths forward. The Lancet Global Health, 8(7), e886-e887. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30233-3
     Google Scholar
  22. Koplan, J. P., Bond, C., Merson, M., & Reddy, S. (2009). Towards a common definition of global health. The Lancet, 373(9679), 1993-1995. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60332-9.
     Google Scholar
  23. Mate, K., Bryan, C., Deen, N., & McCall, J. (2017). Review of Health Systems of the Middle East and North Africa Region. International Encyclopaedia of Public Health, 347–356. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-803678-5.00303-9.
     Google Scholar
  24. Miao, H. (2021, April 10). WHO says more than 87% of the world’s Covid vaccine supply has gone to higher-income countries. CNBC. https://www.cnbc.com/2021/04/09/who-says-poor-countries-have-received-just-0point2percent-of-worlds-vaccine-supply.html.
     Google Scholar
  25. Naal, H., El Koussa, M., El Hamouch, M., Hneiny, L., & Saleh, S. (2020). A systematic review of global health capacity building initiatives in low-to middle-income countries in the Middle East and North Africa region. Globalisation and Health, 16, 56. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12992-020-00585-0.
     Google Scholar
  26. Saleh, S., & Fouad, F. M. (2022). Political economy of health in fragile and conflict-affected regions in the Middle East and North Africa region. Journal of global health, 12, 01003. https://doi.org/10.7189/jogh.12.01003.
     Google Scholar
  27. Saleh, S., Mansour, R., Daou, T., & Brome, D. (2022). Assessing innovative approaches for global health capacity building in fragile settings in the MENA region: Development of the evaluation of capacity building (eCAP) program. Conflict and Health, 16, 31. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13031-022-00462-0.
     Google Scholar
  28. Sidiropoulos, S., Emmanouil-Kalos, A., Kanakaki, M. E. and Vozikis, A. (2021). The Rise of NGOs in Global Health Governance and Credibility Issues in the 21st Century. HAPSc Policy Briefs Series, 2(2), 278-288. https://doi.org/10.12681/hapscpbs.29516
     Google Scholar
  29. Sidiropoulos, S., Valachea, S., Kanakaki, M. E., Emmanouil-Kalos, A., Tsimogiannis, G., & Vozikis, A. (2022). Development Assistance for Health and the Role of NGOs in the Africa Region: the Case of the Central African Republic. Journal of Regional Socio-Economic Issues, 12(1), 44-58.
     Google Scholar
  30. Statista. (2022). Total number of confirmed coronavirus (COVID-19) cases in the Eastern Mediterranean region as of July 11, 2022, by country. https://www.statista.com/statistics/1105588/eastern-mediterranean-number-of-coronavirus-cases-by-country/
     Google Scholar
  31. UNICEF. (n.d.a). Middle East and North Africa. https://www.unicef.org/mena/health.
     Google Scholar
  32. United Nations (2019). Egypt, UN Agencies launch Multi-Country Joint Programme to improve Health, Wellbeing and Protection of People on the Move and Host Communities. https://egypt.un.org/en/19184-un-agencies-launch-multi-country-joint-programme-improve-health-wellbeing-and-protection.
     Google Scholar
  33. WHO. (2018). The state of health in the WHO African Region: an analysis of the status of health, health services and health systems in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals. Brazzaville: WHO Regional Office for Africa. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/275292.
     Google Scholar
  34. WHO. (n,d.a). Universal Health Coverage, Overview. https://www.who.int/health-topics/universal-health-coverage#tab=tab_1
     Google Scholar
  35. WHO. (n.d.b.). COVAX: Working for global equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines. https://www.who.int/initiatives/act-accelerator/covax.
     Google Scholar
  36. World Bank. (2022a). Classification of Fragile and Conflict-Affected Situations. World Bank. https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/fragilityconflictviolence/brief/harmonized-list-of-fragile-situations.
     Google Scholar
  37. World Bank. (2022b). MENA Crisis Tracker. https://thedocs.worldbank.org/en/doc/a32a611d09ad47947f154d81c635b658-0280032022/original/MENA-Crisis-Tracker-2-7-2022.pdf.
     Google Scholar
  38. World Bank. (n.d,a). Middle East and North Africa: Looking Forward. https://designstudio.worldbank.org/2021/76482-MENA-Looking_Forward/en.html.
     Google Scholar
  39. World Bank. (n.d.b). The World by Income and Region. https://datatopics.worldbank.org/world-development-indicators/the-world-by-income-and-region.html.
     Google Scholar
  40. World Bank. (n.d.c). Middle East and North Africa, Overview. https://www.worldbank.org/en/region/mena/overview.
     Google Scholar